Lime Sulphur is usually used in the Horticulture industry to control scale insects, moss, lichen and fungal diseases on plants. It can be used for all of these issues when it comes to Bonsai. A use that is not listed on the container is to whiten deadwood / Jin.
As always, safety comes first when you use any chemical. In this case, it is not just the smell (rotten eggs comes to mind), but also the fact that this chemical is corrosive. It is a good idea to wear gloves and to protect your eyes. Wash your hands very well afterwards and keep your hands away from your face.
Follow the instructions on the container for all uses. As said, the whitening of deadwood is not listed as a normal use of lime sulphur. One thing to keep in mind is to also protect the soil surface from lime sulphur dripping or being spilt on the surface. Remember, this chemical is also used to kill moss! You do not want to kill of your lush green carpet covering the soil surface. I usually use plastic wrap for this purpose.
I dilute the lime sulphur 50/50 with water and I do this in a plastic or paper cup as it is easier to just throw it away afterwards than trying to clean it and getting rid of the smell. I also use a 12mm brush for most applications, but can go smaller or larger depending on the size of the job.
I also find it easier to apply if I slightly wet the surface of the deadwood. The Juniper that I worked on here had a bit of rot at the bottom where the tree meets the soil surface. This was cleaned well and the lime sulphur was liberally applied here. The chemical protects the wood against rot by acting as a preservative.
After application, clean the brushes well and get rid of the container. Wash your hands and allow the lime sulphur to dry and work its magic on the tree.
Liverworts are flat growing green plants, closely related to mosses (Bryophytes). They have no stem and only a thallus, the flat leaf-like structure that is seen above ground. They belong to group called Hepatics and belong to the Marchantiophyta, a division of bryophyte plants, the mosses. These plants are primitive, not only in structure, but also in the fact that they are old. Some sources mention that they transition onto land during the Devonian Era (400 million years ago). Goes well with Bonsai then, I hear you say. Not really.
Bonsai growers will find these plants in moist areas. Where I live we have a high rainfall in winter and I have to be very careful with watering. This is usually taken care of by ensuring that the soil medium is free draining. Most of the liverworts that I see growing on soil come from nursery sourced plants, probably because the soil contains the spores and the fact there could be lot more organic soil in nursery plant soils.
The problem for me is that they can rapidly cover the surface of the soil and prevent water from penetrating the soil. This is not necessarily a problem as they already indicate that the soil is too wet. This layer of Liverwort can also prevent proper air circulation through the soil. I have also had experience of Liverwort growing over moss (I want the moss), suffocating the moss to death.
These plants reproduce asexually and sexually. They produce bumps (cupules) on the leaves, usually during late autumn, containing “eggs” called gemmae. These produce new plants. The sexual reproduction produces spores which germinate and form new plants.
As said, these plants can be an indicator that your soil or growing medium is too wet. If this is the case, it is obvious that the medium must be changed to be more free draining. Larger inorganic particles can be used to do this. If it is still a problem, look at the top layer of the soil. This could contain spores of liverwort. Scrape the top layer off and replace with a coarse material like gravel or pea metal.
Harsh chemicals could be used to spray on the liverwort to kill them off, but I have found that dabbing or brushing vinegar on the leaves of the liverwort, kills them off as well.