Pine Seedlings as Cuttings – Early work to get a killer Nebari.

In an earlier post (https://wordpress.com/post/bonsaiplace.net/515), I have written about imagethe germination of Pine seedlings. These seeds (planted on 26 January 2016) germinated very fast and are now large enough to change into cuttings. The reason why I do this is that it gets rid of the tap root early on and forces the seedling to grow new roots and the hope is that the new roots will develop radially for a really great nebari. That is theory.

I started off by making sure that I have all the tools needed to start the process. This included containers with seedling mix, a surgical blade, hormone rooting liquid as well as my trusty Rhizotonic.

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The first step is to wet the seedling mix in the container with the Rhizotonic solution. Rhizotonic is a dynamic, organic root stimulator and stress reliever (wonder whether it works for humans?). I use it for everything that is re-potted, yamadori that are planted and especially for plants where a lot of roots have to be cut.

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The next step is to very gently remove the seedlings from the original container. This phase needs to be accurate and quick as the seedlings cannot dry out during this time. The seedlings are placed on a cutting board and the tap roots are removed by cutting through the seedling where the stem and taproot meets. It is important that a very sharp blade is used as the stem cannot be bruised or crushed at this stage.

The seedlings are then handled by the leaves to further prevent bruising to the stem and it is placed in the rooting hormone. From here the seedlings are quickly planted in the seed raising soil. The seedlings are now watered in with the Rhizotonic solution and placed in a shady, but warm location. From here the seedlings will be sprayed with the Rhizotonic solution twice a day and if necessary even three times a day. Now the wait begins. The date today is 20 March 2016.

Nebari – The Root of the Matter

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These roots have grown over time, dropping of the side of a cliff.

No, we are not talking about the Nebari fictional alien race from the planet Farscape, but the Japanese term generally used to indicate the roots and specifically the root flare at the bottom of the trunk where the root region starts. It also indicates the visible surface roots.

Wikipedia refers to it as: “Also known as “buttressing”, nebari is the visible spread of roots above the growing medium at the base of a bonsai. Nebari help a bonsai seem grounded and well-anchored and make it look mature, akin to a full-sized tree.”

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My idea is to write three or so Blogs focusing on Nebari and the development of roots. There is no doubt in any Bonsai artist’s mind that the roots of a plant is where it all starts. Healthy roots = healthy plant (generally). A plant absorbs most of its water and nutrients from the soil through the roots. We therefore have to know something about soil and its water retention and draining properties. Not all soils are created equally. We also need to know something about the physiology and anatomy of roots. This knowledge will help us to understand many of the concepts around root pruning. This will come in later Blogs.

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A tree growing in a woodland area. These roots definitely add to the character of the tree and indicate that it has been there for a while.

Getting back to the Nebari, the main aim of establishing a root flair at the base of a tree is to indicate age. A wider base caused by a flaring just above the roots, helps to establish the taper of a tree. One way to develop taper is to increase the circumference of the tree at the base and to keep the top of the tree relatively thin. Young trees do not have a huge flair at the base, but older trees show this without fail. In saying that, there are trees that are used for Bonsai that do not show a big root flare. Junipers come to mind here.

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The roots are spread over a flat surface and tied to this surface.

There are multiple methods to improve the Nebari of a Bonsai tree. The first one is the continuous root pruning of downwards growing roots. For the health of the tree it is advised that this is done over time to enable the tree to grow new roots in the place of the removed roots. A second method is done through air layering. This is simply done through preparing the bottom of the trunk as one would for air layering and heaping up the soil or packing sphagnum moss around this area. Roots will over time establish themselves in that area. I have read about a method where a wire is bound tightly around the trunk just above the roots. The flow of nutrients will be impeded and that will cause new roots to grow from above the wire. I have not tried this method myself before and cannot comment on how successful it is. Other methods include drilling holes through flat tiles and tying the roots of the tree in a horizontal direction to the tile with wire through the drilled holes. It could also be done through grafting.

In the end, the Nebari plays a vital role in the aesthetics of the tree. It is crucial thfotolia_2553306_XSat some sort of Nebari be established as it indicates age, shows that the tree is balanced and sturdy and has been there for a long time.

The next Blog will address the science behind root development.

Maple Progression

This Acer stands 35 cm tall and is still very much in training. This photo was taken in May 2013 and it shows the tree in full Autumn splendor.

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Soon after this photo was taken the tree lost the last of its leaves and the branch structure can clearly be seen here.

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The branch on the right is too straight, but the tree does need a bit of width. The smaller branch above it still needs to grow to fill that gap. The three branches going almost straight up is also disturbing on the eye. What cannot be seen here is that the tree has very few back branches which means very little depth.

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Skip seven months and this photo is from the other side. A back branch has now been pulled down by the guy wire and the second branch on the left (previous photo right) is filling in nicely.

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This photo was taken in December 2014.

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There is now more width to the tree, but the vertical branches making up the apex have not been sorted yet. That is the next phase of development, a repot come spring and that will be in a smaller, more appropriate pot.